The chief ingredients are tao ren and da huang. Tao ren activates the blood circulation and breaks up blood stasis. Da huang breaks up blood stasis and clears away heat due to the blood accumulation. The deputy herbs are gui zhi and mang xiao. Gui zhi warms and promotes blood circulation, strengthens the action of tao ren, and can also prevent the formation of blood stasis caused by the cold nature of the other herbs. Mang xiao, expels heat and softens hard masses. It helps da huang to expel heat and break up stasis. Zhi gan cao, the assistant and guide herb, protects the stomach and harmonizes the middle burner. It can also moderate the action of the drastic crude herbs. When all herbs in this formula are combined, the formula can break up and eliminate blood stasis.