- Natural beta-carotene possesses superior antioxidant activity compared to the synthetic beta-carotene more commonly found in vitamin supplements.
- In a controlled trial, a combination of supplemental beta-carotene and vitamins A, C, and E helped protect myocardial tissue from the effects of ischemia.
- Zinc, copper, and manganese are required for activation of superoxide dismutase (SOD), the enzyme responsible for scavenging harmful free radicals. Superoxide dismutase itself is not effectively absorbed as an oral supplement.
- Selenium, the mineral activator of glutathione peroxidase, has been associated with cardioprotective effects and other long-term health benefits.